This research study aims at analyzing the perfume advertisements in the two magazines between the years and As mentioned above, perfume advertisements are usually sexualized and explicit. With the increased circulation of these magazines, such adverts are likely to reach a wider population and thus negatively affect the target audience. The discussion below further explains the relevance of carry out this study and its significance and effects on Cosmopolitan and Redbook magazine readers.
The use of sexual appeals in advertisements has been used as far back as the s. This has been a tool used by advertisers to entice, shock, and sell their products to consumers Reichert, Magazines are an important medium to study, because they are read by a variety of women and they have the ability to capture their audience for an extended period of interrupted time. It is important to analyze advertisements through a feminist perspective because women are the intended recipients of these messages. Kang conducted a study that focused on gender behavior in advertisements and determined which behaviors were shown the most in magazine advertisements in and then again in Of these advertisement images, perfume is responsible for some of the most alluring or sexual roles.
Women are told over and over again that certain products will increase their chances of having their idealized lifestyle. A study done by Reichert and Alaro found that participants who watched a fragrance commercial, which featured a high level of sex appeal throughout, were more engaged than in a non-sexual one they had seen prior.
Reicher and Alaro found that participants who viewed the sexual ad also had positive thoughts about the ad and had a greater recall of what the ad was about immediately after viewing it and 2 months later, than the viewers of the non-sexual ad.
This experience fuels the notion that sex sells. The promise of sex, love, and intimacy is reflected within the pages of magazine advertisements as well as the promise of ideal beauty. Research shows that exposure to images of thin, young, airbrushed female bodies is linked to low self-esteem, depression, and the development of unhealthy eating habits in women Media Awareness. In , the American Psychological Association released a report concluding that girls exposed to sexualized images from a young age are more prone to depression, eating disorders, and low self-esteem.
Advertisements repeatedly tell women that what is most important is how they look. This look has been created through airbrushing, cosmetics, and computer retouching Killing Us Softly , Jean Kilbourne. Advertisers know this and use this information to manipulate women to invest large amounts of money on superficial objects to feel attractive.
However, a study involving leading U. Perfume advertisements often feature isolated images of the female body, which only contributes to the misrepresentation of women Gales, J. One thing is certain: fragrance marketers play to people's fantasies. Sexual content in perfume advertising is shown in the usual ways: as models showing skin and breasts, open shirts, tight-fitting clothing and as flirtations involving touching, kissing, and embracing.
This sexual content is often woven into the explicit and implicit sexual promises.
Reichert, A study in conducted by marketing analyst Suzanne Grayson revealed that sex was the central positioning strategy for 49 percent of the fragrances on the market. Perfume advertisements create a sensual mood, which are essential in fragrance advertising.
It doesn't stop wetness. It doesn't unclog your drain. To create a fantasy for the consumer is what fragrance is all about. And sex and romance are a big part of where people's fantasies tend to run," confessed Robert Green, vice president of advertising for Calvin Klein Cosmetics, to the New York Times Reichert, Chanel No.
http://beta.cmnv.org/aspects-of-english-negation.php The package by French designer Coco Chanel's has remained unchanged since she first tested the fragrance in the vial labeled "Chanel No. If anything, we tend to pull back, rather than go too far, which is opposite of the rest of the business," remarked Lyle Saunders, a Chanel executive, to Adweek.
Jovan, Inc. Their advertisements used blatant sex appeals for their line of musk-oil-based colognes and perfumes. Headlines on the advertising copy read, "Sex Appeal. Now you don't have to be born with it," and "Drop for drop, Jovan Musk Oil has brought more men and women together than any other fragrance in history. They claimed the scent would increase sexual attraction and increase their odds for sexual encounters.
Many of the Jovan advertisements would allude to the fact that people were having sex often and if the reader wasn't satisfied in their sex life, the perfume could help. In , The Fragrance Foundation voted Jovan's Musk Oil advertising campaign the "most exciting and creative national advertisement campaign" Reichert, Until Jovan's brazen advertising campaign, perfume ads had been subtle about the seductive powers of their perfumes.
According to an Advertising Age writer, "Perhaps it is because the company's blatant claims about enhancing the sensual characteristics of a woman's basic animal instincts exploit what the more decorous fragrance marketers have only been hinting at for years. In order to study the dynamics of perfume advertisements from the s, the researcher used the method of qualitative content analysis. First, the researcher examined all the perfume advertisements that appeared in Cosmopolitan and Redbook magazines from to Some advertisements were shown in numerous issues of each magazine, but were only analyzed based on content not the amount of times each ad was in a particular magazine.
By comparing variables, the researcher was able to analyze the trends of these perfume advertisements during the s era.
In order for the researcher to attain the main aim of this study effectively, a hypothesis had to be established in order to guide the researcher. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation or assumption made based on limited facts as a preliminary point for further examination. The author had the following assumptions based on the title of this study. There was a necessity of developing hypotheses for this research because they provide direction of the research study by bridging the gap between the research problem and the evidence needed for its solution.
The four hypotheses developed by the researcher will ensure collection of the evidence necessary to answer the two research questions under study. The hypotheses form a framework for the conclusions as solutions. The researcher will base her conclusion on the results of the tests of the developed hypotheses. The hypotheses developed by the researcher will also enable the assessment of the information collected by the coders to be relevant and organized for better analysis.
The hypotheses enable the researcher to understand the research problem with greater clarity and use the data collected to find solutions to the problems. Prior to gathering and analyzing the advertisements, the researcher formulated the following research questions. These research questions acted as guidelines in obtaining relevant information concerning the title of the research study.
The main purpose of this study was to discover new knowledge in the advertising industry and its current trends.
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The researcher aimed at discoursing new facts in the advertisement industry, particularly advertisements posted in the Cosmopolitan and Redbook magazines. The other purpose of this study was to enable explanation and understanding of phenomena in the advertisement industry. By so doing, the researcher will be in a position to predict future occurrences and development of theories in advertisement such as the Cultivation Theory.
The significance of this study has been analyzed below. Through this study, the author will be able to answer the research questions that triggered carrying out of this study based on this title. The researcher will be in a position to establish how women are represented in perfume advertisements published in Redbook and Cosmopolitan from — The researcher will also be able to know how the advertisements for perfume in Cosmopolitan and Redbook differ.
The Cosmopolitan and Redbook who are mainly women will be able to obtain information concerning the advertisements that are placed in this magazines and be in a position to make sound judgments. Data was collected by a method of content analysis using the images and copy as the unit of analysis.
Advertisements from both Redbook and Cosmopolitan magazines were retrieved from the Cornette Library. Exactly one hundred eighty-seven advertisements targeted towards women from through that appeared in Cosmopolitan and Redbook magazines were examined. When the advertisements were collected, each ad was examined sentence-by-sentence, image-by-image and a specific set of data was coded. Questions that were used in the coding process included: How is the relationship between men and women portrayed, what are the power relationships between men and women, how are the male and female roles defined and how do the characters in perfume advertisements embody these traits?
The research study consists of five chapters, which are presented in the sequence shown in the figure below.
Chapter one introduces the title of the study by giving the background of perfume advertisements in women magazines. This chapter also outlines the main significance of this study and reasons for carrying out this research. The objectives of the study, research questions that guided the researcher and the assumptions that the researcher had when carrying out this study are also outlined in this section. Chapter Two includes the review of the literature, which summarized relevant research.
It explains and reviews the history of sexual advertising and how it pertains to perfume advertisements, how advertising works and the culture of the s. Chapter Three discusses the methodology used and explains the detailed coding charts that were developed and used. This chapter also explains the qualitative content analysis methodology used to interpret this study.
Chapter Four investigates and explains the results of the qualitative content analysis and themes that emerged when three different individuals coding is analyzed. Chapter Five discusses the limitations, results and implications of this study in regards to how women were represented in perfume advertisements in the s. Their contribution has been truly appreciated. Introduction In order to understand the Marketing Planning Process it is important to first know what the term, Marketing Planning Process means.