Nine states have created procedures to improve transparency in investigations into officer-involved deaths or allegations of police abuse of force. Hawaii created a new entity, the Law Enforcement Officer Independent Review Board within the department of the attorney general, to investigate incidents of officer-involved death. Colorado and Illinois require all police departments to have policies in place that prescribe investigative protocols for incidents where an officer discharges a weapon that causes injury or death Colorado or for all officer-involved deaths Illinois.
Illinois and Wisconsin require that if investigators determine that there is no probable cause to file charges against an officer, then a report detailing their findings will be released to the public. In New York, the report is given to the Governor under similar circumstances. Colorado places discretion to release the report to the public in the hands of the district attorney.
All evidence and legal advice reported to the grand jury is recorded and, if the attorney general is advised not to seek indictment, a report is created and will be made available to the public. The law also provides that if an officer provides testimony to the grand jury, they are subject to cross-examination by the prosecutor.
proxy.littlelives.com/terrain-modelling-modelling-masterclass.php Data on Police Stops and Use of Force. In order to understand underlying concerns in certain police-public interactions, many states have begun to track circumstances surrounding, and demographic information of individuals involved in, police encounters. North Carolina requires the Department of Public Safety to collect data and publish annual reports on the number of police involved deaths. Oregon requires law enforcement agencies to collect specific information for each deadly use of force, including the name, gender, race, ethnicity and age of the deceased.
In , several more states required the collection of police statistics specific to the use of deadly force or the discharge of a weapon. California Gov. Each report must contain the gender, race, and age of the person shot, injured, or killed, as well as whether the civilian was armed and the type of force used by all parties involved. Under the law, the Department of Justice shall include a summary of these incidents in their annual crime report. Texas HB also requires, through its attorney general, statistics to be tracked on each officer-caused and officer-sustained injury and death.
The Division must report on this information annually.
Addressing local concerns, Maryland HB , HB set reporting requirements for officer use of force and officer-involved deaths in Baltimore City. The record has to include the name of the officer, the time and place of the incident, a description of what occurred during the incident and, to the extent known, the names of the victims and witnesses present at such incident.
In , California and Illinois enacted laws to track statistics for pedestrian encounters with police. Data must also be collected on charges that resulted from arrests, the sentences resulting from all charges and the outcomes of parole hearings.
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Illinois SB requires police to provide every pedestrian they stop in a public place with a stop card. The Illinois Department of Transportation is required to collect and analyze all pedestrian stop information and report its findings to the General Assembly and the Racial Profiling Prevention and Data Oversight Board.
The law requires every stop that does not result in criminal charges to be documented in a police-generated report. The police report shall also include the race, age, and gender of the individual searched and the results of the search. Community outreach officers meet and establish one-on-one relationships with community leaders that open communication channels. They also build partnerships with community-based organizations, including faith-based and interfaith organizations.
Build Trust. Community outreach officers work to establish honest and open dialogue on sensitive issues—including terrorism, hate crimes, and discrimination—with community leaders and members. Law enforcement aims to be as transparent as possible regarding crime fighting and police conduct. Community outreach officers teach communities about crime including hate crimes , police work, and community resources to combat criminal activity.
This includes building knowledge and awareness in communities about violent extremism and how to prevent it. Problem Solve.
Community outreach officers help communities and individuals respond to their current problems. This includes helping communities respond appropriately to Islamophobia, discrimination, and hate speech and crimes. They also help community members access available resources to address social, legal, and mental and physical health concerns.
They assist immigrants and refugees in promoting their integration and addressing their security concerns. They provide communities with knowledge and skills to assess the threat level of individuals and educate them on how to respond. Community outreach officers promote the civic engagement of community members, including promoting women and youth advocacy on civic and public safety issues. They also provide community-based organizations with consultation, materials, information, and support regarding how their organization can contribute to building resilience to violent extremism.
These should all be considered emerging practices, given that this is still a new strategy and further research is needed to prove their effectiveness. In the meantime, efforts are needed to train more police officers in other U.
According to Schanzer, less than one quarter of all U. Establishing community policing programs to address violent extremism face several kinds of barriers.
First, some community members may not adequately trust or want to work with law enforcement. This can be due to prior negative experiences with law enforcement here or in other countries, or to opposition to CVE because of the perception that it singles out Muslim-Americans or is a means of surveillance. Second, police departments may not have adequate resources to support the training, manpower, and special activities of community policing, especially in the face of competing fiscal demands. Third, because terrorist attacks and threats receive more media coverage than prevention, and forceful counterterrorism tactics receive far more Congressional support, it is difficult to muster the necessary federal resources to support community policing and CVE activities.
The aforementioned emerging practices lay a necessary foundation for combatting terrorism in the homeland, but additional work is needed in order to effectively build community resilience to violent extremism.
This additional work could start by considering several priority recommendations that came from community outreach officers and their community partners:. Focus on all threats. Instead of limiting the focus to Muslim-Americans, use community policing strategies to address the full spectrum of ideologically inspired violence, including the violent far-right and far-left, as well as non-ideologically inspired violence.
Keep community policing activities separate from surveillance and investigations. Despite some calls for using community policing as a means of information gathering , many people spoke of the need to maintain several degrees of separation from the other dimensions of police work.