If the research is part of another research project and the data is not freely available, except to the original research team, explicit, written permission for the use of the data must be obtained from the research team and included in the application for ethical clearance. However, there are certain other issues pertaining to the data that is procured for secondary analysis.
The data obtained should be adequate, relevant but not excessive. In secondary data analysis, the original data was not collected to answer the present research question. Thus the data should be evaluated for certain criteria such as the methodology of data collection, accuracy, period of data collection, purpose for which it was collected and the content of the data. It shall be kept for no longer than is necessary for that purpose. It must be kept safe from unauthorized access, accidental loss or destruction.
Data in the form of hardcopies should be kept in safe locked cabinets whereas softcopies should be kept as encrypted files in computers. It is the responsibility of the researcher conducting the secondary analysis to ensure that further analysis of the data conducted is appropriate. In some cases there is provision for analysis of secondary data in the original consent form with the condition that the secondary study is approved by the ethics review committee. However it also says that consent is not a once-and-for-all event, but is subject to renegotiation over time 3.
It appears that there are no guidelines about the specific conditions that require further consent. In qualitative research, the culture of data archiving is absent 4. However, the best practice is to plan anonymisation at the time of initial transcription. A log of all replacements, aggregations or removals should be made and stored separately from the anonymised data files. But because of the circumstances, under which qualitative data is produced, their reinterpretation at some later date can be challenging and raises further ethical concerns.
There is a need for formulating specific guidelines regarding re-use of data, data protection and anonymisation and issues of consent in secondary data analysis. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Iran J Public Health. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received Oct 20; Accepted Nov 5. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Background Research does not always involve collection of data from the participants. Secondary data analysis Secondary analysis refers to the use of existing research data to find answer to a question that was different from the original work 2. Issues in Secondary data analysis Concerns about secondary use of data mostly revolve around potential harm to individual subjects and issue of return for consent.
Issues in Secondary analysis of Qualitative data In qualitative research, the culture of data archiving is absent 4. Conclusion There is a need for formulating specific guidelines regarding re-use of data, data protection and anonymisation and issues of consent in secondary data analysis. Acknowledgements The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
When writing a PhD thesis proposal, however, you must remember that you are now expected to do more than simply regurgitate the theories and studies of others.
jogosnordeste.strongtecnologia.com.br/4086.php You are now required to show that you are able to adequately extend the existing literature, rather than simply interpret and criticise it. This may mean that you spend a lot longer searching for a topic, as you will want to identify a concept that still has room for exploration. There are several things that you will need to include that have not already been mentioned above, however: As a PhD research proposal is usually submitted directly to your department of choice, you should make clear your reasons for choosing that particular university over other competitors.
Does this department have a history of research in the specific area you are writing in? Is there a research grant you are hoping to apply for? Within your methodology section, it is important to include a description of the research techniques that you are planning to use. Or have they been used effectively in similar studies previously?
Again, be sure to follow any departmental guidance in terms of word count, and if you are applying for a research grant be sure to relate everything back to the aims and objectives outlined within the accompanying details. In summary Concentrate on what your research will achieve, why it is important, and what it will add to your field of study.
For example, Peripheral Realism Theory, which categorizes perceived differences among nation-states as those that give orders, those that obey, and those that rebel, could be used as a means for understanding conflicted relationships among countries in Africa. About the Author. Ethical Considerations can be specified as one of the most important parts of the research. Graduate Writing Workshop Recordings Past workshops have been recorded. Weaver by WeaverTheme. Taking authorship of the writings of others is unethical.
Be sure to include a bibliography detailing any sources you have used or literature you have referred to in writing your dissertation proposal. The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation.
How to write a dissertation proposal. What is a dissertation proposal? Help is here for writing your dissertation proposal. If done correctly, a dissertation proposal works in much the same way as an in-depth essay plan, providing you with guidance when beginning to actually write your dissertation. In particular, outlining a strong methodology as a part of your proposal will ensure that you maintain consistency and conformity when gathering and analysing your data. Including ethical considerations, reasons for your choice of sample, and perceived limitations of your research will also help to protect your work from criticism.
Beginning to plan a dissertation is an undoubtedly daunting task. Writing an effective dissertation proposal is a necessary first step in deciding upon a subject area, focusing in on a research question, and identifying the methods that you will use in collecting and presenting your data. Whether you're writing an undergraduate or postgraduate proposal, it's vital you check your course and institution requirements prior to submission, since the word count and format can vary between universities. Students succeed with Oxbridge Essays. Take a closer look at how our team help thousands of students every year get better grades with our dissertation writing service.
Ethical Considerations can be specified as one of the most important parts of My e-book, The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation in Business Studies: a. research ethics issues and how they affect your replication-based dissertation. your sample size, and the use of gatekeepers when selecting your sample.
It may be that the easiest way to begin to hone in on a specific topic is to go back through all of the lecture slides, notes and assignments that you have completed so far. Consult your departmental handbook or ask your supervisor if you need clarification of what information to use when referencing.
The more reading that you do, the more you should be able to refine your research questions. If you aim to address an area that is too broad, you will risk generalisation and run out of space in your word count.
This is where you will need to introduce your topic. The methodology section is where you will outline the methods through which you will collect and process your data. Aims and Objectives. Here you will highlight the main issues that you are attempting to explore. Literature Review. The literature review gives you the opportunity to make a really good argument for the importance of your research, and connect it to similar research, or present it as an extension to other existing studies.
Part of writing an effective and informative piece of research is recognising the limits that are imposed upon your ability to explore and present your findings. Ethical Considerations. Are there any ethical concerns relating to your research? Often, dissertation proposals will include an estimated timeframe for the delivery of work to their supervisor. It does not matter how ground-breaking your findings are, they can be seriously undermined if you have not allowed room for ethical considerations within your planning, preparation, and research phases.
Making it clear why you are doing this research. Proving that you have a solid basis upon which to suggest further investigation of your topic, and highlighting what you hope to gain from carrying it out, means that you are justifying your work in this area and the contribution that you will make to your field. Your supervisor should be able to help you take all necessary precautions when tailoring your methodology to your specific research proposal.
A more complete awareness of the subject area is a requirement, but this should come fairly easily as a result of the extra study you have completed already. There are several things that you will need to include that have not already been mentioned above, however:. Concentrate on what your research will achieve, why it is important, and what it will add to your field of study. Good luck! Need help writing your dissertation proposal? Learn from a model proposal that our service provides or collaborate with your academic, either way, our service takes the worry out of your dissertation proposal.
Find out more about how we can help. Top 10 tips for writing your dissertation literature review. Writing your dissertation introduction, conclusion and abstract. Dissertation tips: tutorials with your dissertation supervisor.